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谈球吧体育登录 威森——煉油工藝先鋒

發布日期:2021-03-09 瀏覽次數:477

韋森精煉損耗:原油中所含的所有雜質占羊毛套管的質量分數,這是石油加工技術人員已知的名詞短語。韋森是美國杰出的石油化學家,煉油技術的先驅,美國石油化學家協會的創始人之一。1899年,韋森發明了一種去除棉籽油氣味的方法,生產出第一代亞麻籽油。棉籽油作為棉花產業的副產品,價格低廉。由于韋森的發明,棉籽油成為20世紀初美國最受歡迎的食用油。所有的石油加工技術人員都知道一個名詞,wesson refining loss:羊毛套筒中原油所含所有雜質的質量分數。韋森是美國杰出的油化學家,煉油技術的先驅,美國油化學家協會的創始人之一。1899年,韋森發明了一種去除棉籽油氣味的方法,生產了第一代棉籽油作為原料。棉籽油作為棉花產業的副產品,價格低廉,威森的發明使棉籽油成為20世紀初美國最受歡迎的食用油。

威森出生于1861年1月14日。他在紐約布魯克林的一所公立學校接受早期教育。他畢業于麻省理工學院(MIT),獲得理學學士學位,并在那里擔任化學教授的助理。

ing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">Wesson was born on January 14, 1861. He received his early education in a public school in Brooklyn, New York. He graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with a bachelor of science degree, where he served as an assistant to a professor of chemistry.

此后不久,Wesson開始對油脂感興趣,當時他擔任了伊利諾斯州芝加哥N.K. Fairbanks公司的首席化學家。1890年,W.J. Wilcox收購了N.K. Fairbanks公司,Wesson被調到新澤西州的Gutenberg,擔任首席化學家。Fairbanks公司是美國Wilcox油脂公司的一個分分司,從1890年到1895年雇傭了Wesson。到1893年,Wesson為公司已經開發了兩種起穌油產品,以哥倫布和玻利瓦爾(Columbus 和 Bolivar)的名字命名。

Soon thereafter, Wesson became interested in fats and soaps when he was the chief chemist of N.K. Fairbanks in Chicago, Illinois, a manufacturer of animal-based oils. Generally speaking, these products include 8 parts oleostearin, 38 parts cottonseed oil and 60 parts lard. They were so successful in the market that Fairbanks gave up making pure lard. In 1890, W.J. Wilcox acquired N.K. Fairbanks, and Wesson was transferred to Gutenberg, New Jersey, as the chief chemist. Fairbanks is a branch of the Wilcox Grease Company in the United States, which hired Wesson from 1890 to 1895. However, it seems that some products were sold under the name Fairbanks until 1919. By 1893, Wesson had developed two oil products for the company, named after Columbus and Bolivar.

后來他建立了自己的實驗室,1900年開始生產可食用棉籽油的時候,Wesson以Wesson加工公司名義經營,他也成為南方棉籽油公司技術部門的經理。到了1900年冬天,開始生產“Wesson 油”。這一過程的一個關鍵部分是除臭技術。1845年首次報道了油脂的脫臭,當時用高壓蒸汽處理加熱到110度的棕櫚油。到1891年,Ekstein,Fairbanks公司一個員工,成功脫臭棉籽油,在340°F通入高壓蒸汽,在封閉的油罐頂部排出蒸汽和氣味。

Later, Wesson opened a bicycle factory and established its own laboratory. When edible cottonseed oil was produced in 1900, Wesson started a new business. Operating under the name of Wesson Processing Company, Wesson also became the manager of the technical department of Southern Cottonseed Oil Company. In the winter of 1900, the production of "Wesson Oil" began at the Savannah plant in Georgia. A key part of this process is the development of appropriate deodorization technology. Although the method of treating cottonseed oil with Fuller's clay eliminates the color problem, there are still difficulties in removing odor/taste, which severely restricts the use of cottonseed oil. Deodorization of fats and oils was first reported in 1845, when palm oil heated to 110 degrees was treated with high-pressure steam. By 1891, Ekstein, an employee of Fairbanks, had successfully deodorized cottonseed oil, passed high-pressure steam at 340°F, and discharged steam and odors on the top of a closed oil tank.

在Ekstein離開Fairbanks之后,James Boyce做了更多的改進。Wesson通過在真空中進行操作,最終改善了除臭的效果。避免過熟的風味,并產生了優良的風味和氧化穩定性。

After Ekstein left Fairbanks, James Boyce made more improvements. However, Wesson eventually improved its deodorization by operating in a vacuum. Overripe flavor is avoided and excellent flavor and oxidation stability are obtained.

Wesson似乎是第一個油脂化學家(1887)組織一個質量控制實驗室對棉籽產品進行系統檢查,他是第一個為棉籽廠經營者建立物理審計方法的人。Wesson是一位多產的作家,他撰寫了大量的文章,包括工業和工程化學,美國化學工程師學會的學報,以及化學工業協會的期刊,以及各種油脂工業的行業雜志。他對該行業的許多貢獻包括一種確定中性油得率的方法,即Wesson精煉損失測試;測定油色澤的方法;以及介紹除臭、加氫、脫色和溶劑浸出食用油的出版物。Wesson擔任《油脂和肥皂》(Oil and Soap)雜志的副主編。他是美國化學工程師學會的會員,在1919- 1920年擔任這個協會的主席。

Wesson appears to have been the first grease chemist (1887) to organize a quality control laboratory for systematic inspection of cottonseed products, and he was the first to establish a physical audit method for cottonseed plant operators. Wesson is a prolific author of numerous articles including industrial and engineering chemistry, the journal of the American Society of Chemical Engineers, and the journals of the Chemical Industry Association, as well as trade journals of the various oil and grease industries. Many of his contributions to the industry include a method for determining neutral oil yield, known as the Wesson refining loss test; Method for determining oil colour and lustre; And publications on deodorization, hydrogenation, decolorization, and solvent leaching of edible oils. Wesson is associate editor of Oil and Soap magazine. He was a member of the American Society of Chemical Engineers and served as its president from 1919 to 1920.

Wesson是植物油行業的有力捍衛者,由于當時通過的立法,與黃油/乳制品行業相比植物油處于劣勢。1886年通過的一項聯邦法律要求所有的豬油和其他脂肪混合物標記為“化合物”,而不是“精制豬油”,以防止摻假。1931年,在一個眾議院關于人造黃油的立法會議上,Wesson回憶說,在1886年法案下,他分析的一種人造黃油的樣本,是一種不適合人類食用的變質黃油。Wesson還指出,在通過了人造黃油法之后,發現超出屠宰的豬所得到的量的豬油被運出芝加哥。調查顯示,棉籽油和硬脂酸被添加到純豬油中,并作為精煉豬油出售。黃油行業多年來一直受到法律的保護,禁止在人造黃油中使用色素。Wesson向眾議院委員會指出,黃油的顏色受飲食和季節的影響。在冬天,奶牛用谷物、干草和稻草喂養產生白色的黃油,而在初夏,那些靠綠色牧場喂養的奶牛會生產出金黃色的黃油。他認為,為了讓消費者不被欺騙,所有含有人工色素的食品都應該被同等地征稅。

Wesson was a strong defender of the vegetable oil industry, which was at a disadvantage to the butter/dairy industry because of legislation passed at the time. A federal law passed in 1886 required all lard and other fat mixtures to be labeled "compounds" rather than "refined lard" to prevent adulteration. In 1931, during a House of Representatives legislative session on margarine, Wesson recalled that a sample of margarine he analyzed under the 1886 Act was a bad butter unfit for human consumption. The average person thinks these types of products are typical margarine, organic products. Made from oleic acid, neutral lard and refined cottonseed oil, it's sweet, and food experts agree that it's a healthy food and a valuable diet, especially for those who can't afford butter. Wesson also noted that after the margarine method was passed, it was found that more lard than the slaughtered pigs got was shipped out of Chicago. The investigation showed that cottonseed oil and stearic acid were added to pure lard and sold as refined lard. The butter industry has been protected by law against the use of pigments in margarine for years. Wesson pointed out to the House committee that butter color is influenced by diet and season. In winter, cows fed grain, hay, and straw produce white butter, while in early summer, those raised on green pastures produce golden butter. He argues that all foods containing artificial colors should be taxed equally in order to keep consumers from being cheated.

參與美國油脂化學家協會(AOCS)的組建

在大衛·威森自己的話語中,對AOCS的成立情況進行了描述:

“在早期的棉籽業務,當棉籽壓榨廠舉行了一年一度會議的慣例,在這些會議中可以發現許多化學家的感興趣的工作是嚴格注意規則委員會的審議,這是一個非常八卦的團體,商界領導人組成的本應是頒布棉籽加工的產品的規則。參加這些會議的化學家的主要職責是向他們的雇主提供各種測試對交易的影響。有一次午餐時,幾家領先的公司的化學家自由地討論了某些方法,并得知他們都在使用完全相同的程序,并且了解了相同的事實。1909年5月18日至20日,在孟菲斯舉行的國際棉籽壓榨者協會會議上,一小群代表不同工廠和商業實驗室的化學家舉行了非正式會議。大家一致同意,棉花油化學家的組織將促進相互感情,允許在統一分析方法的發展方面進行更密切的合作,并為棉籽油工業的利益提供一種研究工作的手段。臨時組織的結果是任命了一個委員會來起草法規和章程。在1910年的小石城會議上,協會以“棉籽產品分析師”的名義組織起來。

Participated in the formation of the American Association of Oleochemists (AOCS)

In David Wesson’s own words, he described the establishment of AOCS:

"In the early cottonseed business, when the cottonseed crushing plant held annual meetings, it was found that many chemists were interested in strictly paying attention to the deliberations of the Rules Committee. This is a very gossip group. The business leaders are supposed to promulgate the rules for cottonseed processing products. The main responsibility of the chemists participating in these meetings is to provide their employers with various tests on the impact of transactions. There is no doubt that the chemists participating in these meetings Be vigilant to new and improved methods, and use their advantages for the benefit of their company. These are relatively crude test methods, and most chemists’ efforts are in the evaluation of oil production and refining methods. This It was before the day of real cooperation. I saw several chemists chatting together. Everyone wanted to say as little as possible, what to learn from their peers. This is a common sight. Their working methods have ridiculous secrets. When it is believed that all people have access to the same literature and trade practices. The author remembers that during lunch, chemists from several leading companies freely discussed certain methods and learned that they were all using exactly the same Procedures, and learned the same facts. From May 18 to 20, 1909, at the International Cottonseed Squeezers Association meeting in Memphis, a small group of chemists representing different factories and commercial laboratories held an informal meeting. It was agreed that the organization of cotton oil chemists would promote mutual affection, allow closer cooperation in the development of unified analytical methods, and provide a means of research work for the benefit of the cottonseed oil industry. The result of the provisional organization is appointment A committee was formed to draft regulations and articles of association. At the Little Rock meeting in 1910, the association was organized under the name of "Cottonseed Product Analyst".The name was chosen because few of us have received real chemistry education , And only received the training of laboratory assistants, mainly to do routine tests.

美國油脂化學家協會前12任主席,攝于1921年。

前排左二:David Wesson

The 12 former presidents of the American Association of Oleochemists, taken in 1921.

Front row second from left: David Wesson

Wesson于1934年5月22日去世,他的訃告出現在6月的《油脂與肥皂》雜志上。訃告說:“作為一個男人,Wesson博士非常民主,而且有很強的幽默感。”他總是樂于幫助行業中的年輕人解決各種問題。威森博士受到了所有認識他的人的愛戴,他的朋友、谈球吧体育app下载的社會和整個行業都遭受了巨大的損失。

Wesson is an avid sailor, he owns a sailboat, and he sails in Banat Bay. He died on May 22, 1934. The industry mourned his death, and his obituary appeared in the June issue of Grease and Soap. The obituary said: "As a man, Dr. Wesson is very democratic and has a strong sense of humor." He is always happy to help young people in the industry solve various problems. Dr. Wesson is loved by everyone who knows him. His friends, our society and the industry have suffered huge losses.

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